Linux Terminal Commands

System Infodate – Show the current date and timecal – Show this month's calendaruptime – Show current uptimew – Display who is onlinewhoami – Who you are logged in asfinger user – Display information about useruname -a – Show kernel informationcat /proc/cpuinfo – CPU informationcat /proc/meminfo – Memory informationdf -h – Show disk usagedu – Show directory space usagefree – Show memory and swap usage Keyboard ShortcutsEnter – Run the commandUp Arrow – Show the previous commandCtrl + R – Allows you to type a part of the command you're looking for and finds itCtrl + Z – Stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the backgroundCtrl + C – Halts the current command, cancel the current operation and/or start with a fresh new lineCtrl + L – Clear the screencommand | less – Allows the scrolling of the bash command window using Shift + Up Arrow and Shift + Down Arrow!! – Repeats the last commandcommand  !$ – Repeats the last argument of the previous commandEsc + . (a period) – Insert the last argument of the previous command on the fly, which enables you to edit it before executing the commandCtrl + A – Return to the start of the command you're typingCtrl + E – Go to the end of the command you're typingCtrl + U – Cut everything before the cursor to a special clipboard, erases the whole lineCtrl + K – Cut everything after the cursor to a special clipboardCtrl + Y – Paste from the special clipboard that Ctrl + U and Ctrl + K save their data toCtrl + T – Swap the two characters before the cursor (you can actually use this to transport a character from the left to the right, try it!)Ctrl + W – Delete the word / argument left of the cursor in the current lineCtrl + D – Log out of current session, similar to exit Learn the Commandsapropos subject – List manual pages for subjectman -k keyword – Display man pages containing keywordman command – Show the manual for commandman -t man | ps2pdf - > man.pdf  – Make a pdf of a manual pagewhich command – Show full path name of commandtime command – See how long a command takeswhereis app – Show possible locations of appwhich app – Show which app will be run by default; it shows the full path Searchinggrep pattern files – Search for pattern in filesgrep -r pattern dir – Search recursively for pattern in dircommand | grep pattern – Search for pattern in the output of commandlocate file – Find all instances of filefind / -name filename – Starting with the root directory, look for the file called filenamefind / -name ”*filename*” – Starting with the root directory, look for the file containing the string filenamelocate filename – Find a file called filename using the locate command; this assumes you have already used the command updatedb (see next)updatedb – Create or update the database of files on all file systems attached to the Linux root directorywhich filename – Show the subdirectory containing the executable file  called filenamegrep TextStringToFind /dir – Starting with the directory called dir, look for and list all files containingTextStringToFind File Permissionschmod octal file – Change the permissions of file to octal, which can be found separately for user, group, and world by adding: 4 – read (r), 2 – write (w), 1 – execute (x)Examples:chmod 777 – read, write, execute for allchmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and worldFor more options, see man chmod. File Commandsls – Directory listingls -l – List files in current directory using long formatls -laC – List all files in current directory in long format and display in columnsls -F – List files in current directory and indicate the file typels -al – Formatted listing with hidden filescd dir – Change directory to dircd – Change to homemkdir dir – Create a directory dirpwd – Show current directoryrm name – Remove a file or directory called namerm -r dir – Delete directory dirrm -f file – Force remove filerm -rf dir – Force remove an entire directory dir and all it’s included files and subdirectories (use with extreme caution)cp file1 file2 – Copy file1 to file2cp -r dir1 dir2 – Copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it doesn't existcp file /home/dirname – Copy the filename called file to the /home/dirname directorymv file /home/dirname – Move the file called filename to the /home/dirname directorymv file1 file2 – Rename or move file1 to file2; if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into directoryfile2ln -s file link – Create symbolic link link to filetouch file – Create or update filecat > file – Places standard input into filecat file – Display the file called filemore file – Display the file called file one page at a time, proceed to next page using the spacebarhead file – Output the first 10 lines of filehead -20 file – Display the first 20 lines of the file called filetail file – Output the last 10 lines of filetail -20 file – Display the last 20 lines of the file called filetail -f file – Output the contents of file as it grows, starting with the last 10 lines Compressiontar cf file.tar files – Create a tar named file.tar containing filestar xf file.tar – Extract the files from file.tartar czf file.tar.gz files – Create a tar with Gzip compressiontar xzf file.tar.gz – Extract a tar using Gziptar cjf file.tar.bz2 – Create a tar with Bzip2 compressiontar xjf file.tar.bz2 – Extract a tar using Bzip2gzip file – Compresses file and renames it to file.gzgzip -d file.gz – Decompresses file.gz back to file Printing/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start – Start the print daemon/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd stop – Stop the print daemon/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd status – Display status of the print daemonlpq – Display jobs in print queuelprm – Remove jobs from queuelpr – Print a filelpc – Printer control toolman subject | lpr – Print the manual page called subject as plain textman -t subject | lpr – Print the manual page called subject as Postscript outputprinttool – Start X printer setup interface Networkifconfig – List IP addresses for all devices on the local machineiwconfig – Used to set the parameters of the network interface which are specific to the wireless operation (for example: the frequency)iwlist – used to display some additional information from a wireless network interface that is not displayed by iwconfigping host – Ping host and output resultswhois domain – Get whois information for domaindig domain – Get DNS information for domaindig -x host – Reverse lookup hostwget file – Download filewget -c file – Continue a stopped download SSHssh user@host – Connect to host as userssh -p port user@host – Connect to host on port port as userssh-copy-id user@host – Add your key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login User Administrationadduser accountname – Create a new user call accountnamepasswd accountname – Give accountname a new passwordsu – Log in as superuser from current loginexit – Stop being superuser and revert to normal user Process Managementps – Display your currently active processestop – Display all running processeskill pid – Kill process id pidkillall proc – Kill all processes named proc (use with extreme caution)bg – Lists stopped or background jobs; resume a stopped job in the backgroundfg – Brings the most recent job to foregroundfg n – Brings job n to the foreground Installation from source./configuremakemake installdpkg -i pkg.deb – install a DEB package (Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint)rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm – install a RPM package (Red Hat / Fedora) Stopping & Startingshutdown -h now – Shutdown the system now and do not reboothalt – Stop all processes - same as aboveshutdown -r 5 – Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and rebootshutdown -r now – Shutdown the system now and rebootreboot – Stop all processes and then reboot - same as abovestartx – Start the X system


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